First Jewish phase, before Annas
|John 18:13-14, 19-23
|13And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year. 14Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.
|19The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. 20Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. 21Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said. 22And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? 23Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?
The House of Caiaphas
The St. Peter in Gallicantu (cock crow) Church commemorates Peter’s three denials of Jesus and his repentance. It lies on the eastern slope of present-day Mount Zion. This site also commemorates the illegal trial of Jesus staged by Caiaphas and Annas, and the imprisonment of Jesus. Outside the existing church is an ancient stairway which is actually a main walkway up the side of Mount Zion. It is very likely that Jesus, after being taken prisoner in Gethsemane, was led up these stairs to the house of Caiaphas. These stairs were in existence in Jesus’ day.
This location for Caiaphas was determined by reports from Christian pilgrims from the 3rd century A.D. Their reports say this site “was known by all.” About 460 A.D. the Empress Eudoxia built a church on the ruins of Caiaphas’ house to commemorate Peter’s denial and repentance. The present day church was built over the remains of a basilica destroyed on this site by the Persians in 614 A.D. Some archaeologists believe that the house of Caiaphas was located higher up on the summit of Mount Zion in the present day Jewish quarter.